A complete update of the highly acclaimed handbook with data on all neurotransmitters and the majority of neuromodulators. The coverage is now even more comprehensive, with 15% more entries on neuropeptides, "classic" neurotransmitters and related substances in a clear, alphabetical format. The methodological section has been expanded by 50% and now includes color figures, plus new chapters on genomics, proteomics, databases, microarrays, MALDI-TOF, neutrophins, FGF, endocannabinoids and neuroimaging. The text provides clearly structured information on the biosynthesis and degradation, localization, receptors, signal transduction pathways, and biological effects in the central nervous system, with all substances uniformly treated for an easy comparison of data. Furthermore, introductory chapters on receptors, transporters, and the blood-brain barrier make this an indispensable tool for researchers, teachers, and advanced students, as well as a must-have for every neuroscientist.